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The West has drawn upon Hinduism on a wide scale, from hatha yoga and meditation techniques, to popular culture in music and fashion, yet the contribution of.
Table of contents
The book is an earnest attempt to cover an impor- tant topic, and Oliver has clearly gone to great lengths to be thorough in his treatment of it.
In this sense this book lacks the intellectual punch that one sees in an academic work where the writer has the cour- age of his or her convictions. The book is light on theory and instead focuses on giving an historical overview. For a deeper analysis of the currents that lie below the surface of this time period, you will have to look elsewhere.
But all is not lost, since Oliver provides a good reference list of relevant sources for further study. Where Oliver does dip his toe into the ocean of theoretical possibility, he discusses the concepts of individualism and liberty, which have been emphasised in Western cul- ture, and conformity to social norms and orthodox practices of both Western and Indian organised religion.
He raises questions about the relationship between individuality and collective society and to what extent Indian spirituality emphasises both in comparison to Western culture. This overview, along with its reference list provides a cognitive as well as citational map of an area that is personally of interest to me in my own academic work — that of the relationship between Indian spiritual tra- ditions and the counter-culture, and the impact this has had on Western culture to the present day.
Dunedin: Otago University Press, ; pp. The broader story of popular evangelicalism is not the subject of this book.
Hinduism and the s on Apple Books
From the s, through their distinctive biblical teaching and preaching ministries, Orange and Miller gathered around themselves disci- ples, many of whom went on to become ordained and contribute to the shaping of evangelicalism within their denominations. Orange and Miller were also active beyond their parishes through the Pounawea and Ngaruawahia Conventions, drawing on the Keswick tradition, centring on biblical exposition, prayer, and fellowship. Accused of being fundamentalists or pietists, the s evangelicals were certainly conservative, but they were committed to bringing a reasoned approach to their biblical exposition and theology.
Calvinistic, but not strictly so Related Papers. Haykin and Kenneth J. By John Coffey. By Daniel Gorman Jr. Yoga Communities of New Zealand. By Ali H Tilley. By Suzanne Newcombe. By Suji Won. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. One early and emblematic figure was Henry Miller, who was already in his 50s when he moved to Big Sur in Miller had already written the experimental erotic novels that would earn him both fame and infamy, but his influence on Big Sur was pivotal, as the place transformed into a minor mecca of artists, sexual adventurers, and political anarchists.
Hinduism and the 1960s
Miller represents a genuine bridge between the generations and the continents — in s Paris, he was already reading Blavatsky, Rudolph Steiner, and Gurdjieff. Another singular figure of the postwar proto-counterculture was the polymath, ethnomusicologist, experimental film-maker, and archivist Harry Smith.
Raised by Theosophist parents in the Pacific Northwest, Smith lived in the Bay Area in the s, smoking pot, hanging out in jazz clubs, and making hand-painted abstract animations inspired in part by esoteric color theory. Smith later moved to Manhattan, and in , made his most lasting contribution to the counterculture: the Anthology of American Folk Music, a powerful and uncanny collection of early blues and old time music that became the Rosetta stone for folkies like Bob Dylan and the Fugs; among the obsessive notes Smith included quotations from Robert Fludd and Rudolph Steiner.
Smith was also a serious student of Aleister Crowley, a then-obscure predilection he shared with Kenneth Anger, a far more influential West Coast experimental filmmaker who started making films in The most direct ancestors of the spiritual counterculture remain the Beat Generation.
That said, their spiritual journeys were divergent, and inflected the rising occult current in different ways. In this sense, Snyder helps define the important difference between the spiritual counterculture, which he directly helped foment, and the occult revival, whose esoteric undertow he rejected. Of all the Beats, Ginsberg performed the most instrumental role in the spiritual counterculture. Like Synder, his voice also insisted on a transformation rather than an escape from materiality, and his later encounters with Hinduism and Buddhism took place within a solidly Whitman-inspired framework that helped define a more fleshy American dharma.
A mystical and hedonic bard of conscience, Ginsberg also joined Synder in refusing to honor the divide that many made between the spiritual counterculture and political activism. The oldest and least humanist of the Beats, William S. Burroughs anticipated the darker and more paranoid dimensions of the occult countercultural. Burroughs distrusted language as a vehicle of self-expression and spontaneity, considering it more as an occult battleground where the forces of control waged war against subversive and even nihilistic attempts to break the spell of conventional signs.
In Paris in the late s, when he also studied Scientology, Burroughs developed the cut-up method of artistic composition invented by Brion Gysin, linking the sort of oracular juxtapositions already found in Dada and Surrealism to a postwar model of information processing and media manipulation. Along with other psychoactive substances, LSD helped catalyze the transformation of marginal bohemian esotericism into the pop occulture of the late s and s.
More importantly, the acid experience itself gave immediate evidence of the transrational capacities of consciousness, states that might range from a sense of unitive vibratory fusion with the cosmos to a mythopoetic explosion of religious and supernatural symbolism to a perceptual merry-go-round of trickster synchronicities and paranormal possibilities. Acid undermined the instrumental schemes of individual agency, and it returned many users to baseline with a growing taste for loosely associational thinking, ecstatic states, and spontaneous collective happenings.
The paradoxes of a chemical sacrament—whose sacred states were instrumentally catalyzed by a commodity molecule—are very much reflected in the career of Timothy Leary, who was as responsible as anyone for turning on the youth generation. Ginsberg, to whom Leary first provided psilocybin, also played a vital role. When Leary took psilocybin mushrooms in , and LSD shortly thereafter, he was a successful professor of psychology who, though rejecting the reigning Behaviorism of the day, was no humanist. Though firmly rooted in impersonal social science, his experiments with students and faculty led him toward more esoteric discourses and frameworks.
itlauto.com/wp-includes/trace/1844-comment-pirater-sms.php One key focus for their non-stop happening was synchronicity, the uncanny phenomenon of strikingly meaningful coincidence first described as such by Jung. For the Pranksters and many other heads, synchronicity came to be seen as a kind of profane or psychedelic grace—in the fortuitously meaningful conjunction of ordinary events, synchronicity implies a paranormal order of correspondence while retaining a quotidian materiality. The multi-media Acid Tests that the Pranksters staged before California banned LSD in creatively deployed sound and light technologies along with jams from the young Grateful Dead, and thereby laid down a template for the mass psychedelic culture just around the corner.
Synchronicity does not demand explicitly occult interpretations, but it certainly lends itself to them. One traditional esoteric tool that was popular among the Pranksters, and that also saturates bohemian and psychedelic culture in general, is the I Ching. Another significant divinatory system was astrology, which became a generally available typological framework and lingua franca for the counterculture as well as a tool to harmonize that emerging collective with the cosmic environment. Key astrologers for the counterculture included the Haight resident Gavin Arthur—who contributed to the Haight Street Oracle —and Dane Rudhyar, who decisively shaped modern astrology by introducing more humanistic and Jungian interpretative conventions.
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One important popular vehicle for esoteric and occult symbolism was psychedelic art, particularly as it effloresced through the medium of concert posters, LP designs, and, to a lesser extent, underground comix. Strange , which debuted in and was loved by many heads. One important exception was Rick Griffin, a comics creator as well as one of the key rock poster designers of the psychedelic era. Griffin remixed Kabbalistic and esoteric Christian imagery for R. Roszak ends his The Making of a Counter-Culture with the invocation of the shaman and the creative magic of the embodied visionary imagination.
In religious terms, this spirit is manifested less in hippie interpretations of Zen or Vedantist mysticism than in the rise of explicitly magical religions: witchcraft, Satanism, and Paganism, the latter a self-description that itself emerged from the counterculture. Particularly important was the market in fantasy fiction established by the tremendous popularity of J.
Strange , whose Western wizard hero nonetheless draws his wisdom from Tibet, has already been mentioned.
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Though too often dismissed as a simple huckster, LaVey mixed his libertarian philosophy of satisfied individualism with a strong sense of subversive showmanship and more than a touch of sleaze. Though LaVey himself was critical of the hippie drug scene, one of his dynamic co-conspirators was Kenneth Anger, whose tangled engagement with the Age of Aquarius is reflected in his dark and jagged short film Invocation of My Demon Brother , much of which was shot in the Haight.
In one of the creepy synchronicities of the age, the film featured Bobby Beausoleil, a crony of Charles Manson who was later convicted for the Manson-inspired murder of Gary Hinman. The infernal side of occult religion—real, imagined, or performed—was paralleled in the s by more balanced and affirmative nature-based religions, which in part sacralized the countercultural ethos of the enchanted flesh. Brown and the creative possibilities of group performance and ritual play.